January 3, 2021, before dawn, the Quadrantids
The Quadrantids can produce over 100 meteors per hour in a moonless sky, but the narrow peak of this shower lasts only a few hours and doesn’t always come at an opportune time. Unfortunately, a bright waning gibbous moon will obtrude on the show. The radiant point is in the part of the sky that used to be considered the constellation Quadrans Muralis the Mural Quadrant. You’ll find this radiant near the famous Big Dipper asterism (chart here), in the north-northeastern sky after midnight and highest up before dawn. Because the radiant is fairly far to the north on the sky’s dome, meteor numbers tend to be greater at northerly latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. In 2021, watch in the wee hours – after midnight and before dawn – on January 3. Some of the brighter Quadrantid meteors may be able to overcome the glare of the waning gibbous moon.
April 22, 2021, before dawn, the Lyrids
The Lyrid meteor shower – April’s shooting stars – lasts from about April 16 to 25. About 10 to 15 meteors per hour can be expected around the shower’s peak, in a dark sky. This year, the best time to watch may be the hour or two between moonset and dawn. The Lyrids are known for uncommon surges that can sometimes bring the rate up to 100 per hour. Those rare outbursts are not easy to predict, but they’re one of the reasons the tantalizing Lyrids are worth checking out. The radiant for this shower is near the bright star Vega in the constellation Lyra (chart here), which rises in the northeast at about 10 p.m. on April evenings. In 2021, we expect the peak viewing to take place in the dark hour before dawn April 22, after moonset.
May 5, 2021, before dawn, the Eta Aquariids
This meteor shower has a relatively broad maximum; you can watch it the day before and after the predicted peak morning of May 5. Hopefully, the waning crescent moon won’t too seriously dampen this year’s production. The shower favors the Southern Hemisphere and is often that hemisphere’s best meteor shower of the year. The radiant is near the star Eta in the constellation Aquarius the Water Bearer (chart here). The radiant comes over the eastern horizon at about 4 a.m. local time; that is the time at all locations across the globe. For that reason, you’ll want to watch this shower in the hour or two before dawn, no matter where you are on Earth. In the southern half of the U.S., 10 to 20 meteors per hour might be visible in years when you have a dark sky. Farther south – at latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere – you might see two to three times that number on a dark, moonless night. Meanwhile, at northerly latitudes – like those in the northern U.S. and Canada, or northern Europe – meteor numbers are lower for this shower. In 2021, the most meteors will probably rain down in the hour or two before dawn on May 5, though under the light of a rather wide waning crescent moon. The broad peak to this shower means that some meteors may fly for a few days before and after the predicted optimal date.
Late July 2021, before dawn, the Delta Aquariids
Like the Eta Aquariids in May, the Delta Aquariid meteor shower in July favors the Southern Hemisphere and tropical latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. Yet the bright waning gibbous moon is sure to obtrude on this year’s production. These faint meteors appear to radiate from near the star Skat or Delta in the constellation Aquarius the Water Bearer. The maximum hourly rate can reach 15 to 20 meteors in a dark sky. The nominal peak is around July 27-30, but, unlike many meteor showers, the Delta Aquariids lack a very definite peak. Instead, these medium-speed meteors ramble along fairly steadily throughout late July and early August. An hour or two before dawn usually presents the most favorable view of the Delta Aquariids. At the shower’s peak on or near July 29, 2021, the rather faint Delta Aquariid meteors will fall most abundantly in the predawn hours, though in the glaring light of a waning gibbous moon. You’ll still be seeing Delta Aquariids when the Perseids peak in August.
Late evening to dawn on August 11, 12 and 13, 2021, the Perseids
The Perseid meteor shower is perhaps the most beloved meteor shower of the year for the Northern Hemisphere. It’s a rich meteor shower, and it’s steady. These swift and bright meteors radiate from a point in the constellation Perseus the Hero. As with all meteor shower radiant points, you don’t need to know Perseus to watch the shower; instead, the meteors appear in all parts of the sky. These meteors frequently leave persistent trains. Perseid meteors tend to strengthen in number as late night deepens into midnight, and typically produce the most meteors in the wee hours before dawn. In 2021, the waxing crescent moon will set at early evening, providing dark skies for this year’s Perseid meteor shower. Predicted peak in 2021: the night of August 11-12, but try the nights before and after, too, from late night until dawn.
October 8, 2021, nightfall and evening, the Draconids
The radiant point for the Draconid meteor shower almost coincides with the head of the constellation Draco the Dragon in the northern sky. That’s why the Draconids are best viewed from the Northern Hemisphere. The Draconid shower is a real oddity, in that the radiant point stands highest in the sky as darkness falls. That means that, unlike many meteor showers, more Draconids are likely to fly in the evening hours than in the morning hours after midnight. This shower is usually a sleeper, producing only a handful of languid meteors per hour in most years. But watch out if the Dragon awakes! In rare instances, fiery Draco has been known to spew forth many hundreds of meteors in a single hour. In 2021, watch the Draconid meteors at nightfall and early evening on October 8, though you might catch some the day before and after, as well. Fortunately, the thin waxing crescent moon sets before nightfall, and won’t obtrude on this year’s Draconid shower.
October 21, 2021, before dawn, the Orionids
Unfortunately the full moon accompanies this year’s Orionid shower. On a dark, moonless night, the Orionids exhibit a maximum of about 10 to 20 meteors per hour. More meteors tend to fly after midnight, and the Orionids are typically at their best in the wee hours before dawn. These fast-moving meteors occasionally leave persistent trains. The Orionids sometimes produce bright fireballs, which may be able to overcome the moonlit glare. If you trace these meteors backward, they seem to come from the Club of the famous constellation Orion the Hunter. In 2021, try watching the Orionids in the wee hours before dawn on October 21, though the full moon is sure to obtrude on the show.
Late night November 4 until dawn November 5, 2021, the South Taurids
The meteoroid streams that feed the South (and North) Taurids are very spread out and diffuse. Thus the Taurids are extremely long-lasting (September 25 to November 25) but usually don’t offer more than about five meteors per hour. That is true even on their peak nights. The Taurids are, however, well known for having a high percentage of fireballs, or exceptionally bright meteors. Plus, the two Taurid showers – South and North – augment each other. In 2021, the expected peak night of the South Taurid shower happens in close conjunction with the new moon. Peak viewing is just after midnight, with absolutely no moon to ruin the display. The South and North Taurid meteors continue to rain down throughout the following week, with virtually no interference from the waxing crescent moon!
Late night November 11 until dawn November 12, 2021, the North Taurids
Like the South Taurids, the North Taurids meteor shower is long-lasting (October 12 – December 2) but modest, and the peak number is forecast at about five meteors per hour. The North and South Taurids combine to provide a nice sprinkling of meteors throughout October and November. Typically, you see the maximum numbers at or around midnight, when Taurus the Bull is highest in the sky. Taurid meteors tend to be slow-moving, but sometimes very bright. In 2021, the first quarter moon sets at late night, providing dark skies from roughly midnight till dawn.
November 17, 2021, before dawn, the Leonids
Radiating from the constellation Leo the Lion, the famous Leonid meteor shower has produced some of the greatest meteor storms in history – at least one in living memory, 1966 – with rates as high as thousands of meteors per minute during a span of 15 minutes on the morning of November 17, 1966. Indeed, on that beautiful night in 1966, the meteors did, briefly, fall like rain. Some who witnessed the 1966 Leonid meteor storm said they felt as if they needed to grip the ground, so strong was the impression of Earth plowing along through space, fording the meteoroid stream. The meteors, after all, were all streaming from a single point in the sky – the radiant point – in this case in the constellation Leo the Lion. Leonid meteor storms sometimes recur in cycles of 33 to 34 years, but the Leonids around the turn of the century – while wonderful for many observers – did not match the shower of 1966. And, in most years, the Lion whimpers rather than roars, producing a maximum of perhaps 10-15 meteors per hour on a dark night. Like many meteor showers, the Leonids ordinarily pick up steam after midnight and display the greatest meteor numbers just before dawn, for all points on the globe. In 2021, the expected peak night is from late night November 16 till dawn November 17, though the bright waxing gibbous moon will be out nearly all night long, setting in the wee hours before sunrise.
December 13-14, 2021, mid-evening until dawn, Geminids
Radiating from near the bright stars Castor and Pollux in the constellation Gemini the Twins, the Geminid meteor shower is one of the finest meteor showers in the Northern Hemisphere (though still visible, at lower rates, in the Southern Hemisphere). The meteors are plentiful, rivaling the August Perseids. They are often bold, white and bright. On a dark night, you can often catch 50 or more meteors per hour in a dark, moonless sky. But this year, a waxing gibbous moon will obtrude on the show for much of the night, before setting several hours before dawn. The greatest number of meteors fall in the wee hours after midnight, centered around 2 a.m. local time (the time on your clock no matter where you are on Earth), when the radiant point is highest in the sky. In 2021, the peak night of the shower must endure many hours of moonlight from the waxing gibbous moon, though the moon will set in the wee hours before dawn, providing dark skies in the wee morning hours. Watch the usually reliable and prolific Geminid meteor shower from mid-evening December 13 until dawn December 14, with some of the brighter Geminids likely to overcome the moonlight.
December 22, 2021, before dawn, the Ursids
Die-hard meteor watchers in the Northern Hemisphere watch for Ursid meteors about a week after the Geminids. This low-key meteor shower is active each year from about December 17 to 26. The Ursids usually peak around the December solstice, perhaps offering five to 10 meteors per hour during the predawn hours in a dark sky. This year, in 2021, the bright waning gibbous moon will obtrude on the show.
A word about moonlight. In 2021, moonlight poses no problem for the August Perseids, October Draconids or November South Taurids, whereas the morning crescent shouldn’t seriously disrupt the May Eta Aquariids. Some moon-free viewing time accompanies the April Lyrids, November North Taurids and December Geminids in the predawn sky. On the other hand, a nearly full moon obstructs January Quadrantids, October Orionids and November Leonids, while a waning gibbous moon intrudes on the July Delta Aquariids and December Ursids. Our almanac page provides links for access to the moonrise and moonset times in your sky.
Most important: a dark sky. Here’s the first thing – the main thing – you need to know to become as proficient as the experts at watching meteors. That is, to watch meteors, you need a dark sky. It’s possible to catch a meteor or two or even more from the suburbs. But, to experience a true meteor shower – where you might see several meteors each minute – avoid city lights. EarthSky’s Stargazing page shows dark locations worldwide.
Know your dates and times. You also need to be looking on the right date, at the right time of night. Meteor showers occur over a range of dates, because they stem from Earth’s own movement through space. As we orbit the sun, we cross “meteor streams.” These streams of icy particles in space come from comets moving in orbit around the sun. Comets are fragile, icy bodies that litter their orbits with debris. When this cometary debris enters our atmosphere, it vaporizes due to friction with the air. If moonlight or city lights don’t obscure the view, we on Earth see the falling, vaporizing particles as meteors.
Where to go to watch a meteor shower. You can comfortably watch meteors from many places, assuming you have a dark sky: a rural back yard or deck, the hood of your car, the side of a road. State parks and national parks are good bets, but be sure they have a wide open viewing area, like a field; you don’t want to be stuck in the midst of a forest on meteor night. An EarthSky friend, veteran meteor-watcher and astrophotographer Sergio Garcia Rill, also offers this specific advice:
… you might want to give it a try but don’t know where to go. Well, in planning my night photoshoots I use a variety of apps and web pages to know how dark the sky is in a certain location, the weather forecast, and how the night sky will look.
Some suggested apps and websites:
EarthSky’s Best Places to Stargaze
Find a Dark Sky Place, from the International Dark Sky Association
Heavens-Above: Satellite predictions customized to your location
Stellarium Online: Star maps customized to your location
Accuweather’s astronomy blog
Dark Site Finder, from astrophotographer Kevin Palmer
Blue Marble Navigator
What to bring with you. You don’t need special equipment to watch a meteor shower. If you want to bring along equipment to make yourself more comfortable, consider a blanket or reclining lawn chair, a thermos with a hot drink, binoculars for gazing at the stars. Be sure to dress warmly enough, even in spring or summer, especially in the hours before dawn. Binoculars are fun to have. You won’t need them for watching the meteor shower, but, especially if you have a dark sky, you might not be able to resist pointing them at the starry sky.
Are the predictions reliable? Although astronomers have tried to publish exact predictions in recent years, meteor showers remain notoriously unpredictable. Your best bet is to go outside at the times we suggest, and plan to spend at least an hour, if not a whole night, reclining comfortably while looking up at the sky. Also remember that meteor showers typically don’t just happen on one night. They span a range of dates. So the morning before or after a shower’s peak might be good, too.
Peak dates are derived from data published in the Observer’s Handbook by the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada and Guy Ottewell’s Astronomical Calendar.
Bottom line: Look here for information about all the major meteor showers between now and the year’s end. There are some good ones!